The Engineering of Consent

Tato epizoda zkoumá, jak moc poválečná Amerika používala Freudovy představy o nevědomé mysli, aby se pokusila ovládat masy.

Politici a plánovači věřili, že jsou to nebezpečné a iracionální touhy a obavy. Byli přesvědčeni, že to bylo rozpoutání těchto instinktů, které vedly k barbarství nacistického Německa. Chcete-li zabránit tomu, aby se to stalo znovu a znovu.

Dcera Sigmunda Freudalékař-neurolog, psycholog a zakladatel psychoanalýzy. Vytvořil psychoterapeutickou metodu založenou na volných asociacích pacienta, vytvoření přenosového vztahu s ním a na interpretaci jeho promluv, snů, přenosových emocí a odporu během terapie., Anna, a jeho synovec Edward Bernaysamerický zakladatel moderních public relations. Je mu připisováno autorství změny paradigmatu „prodávání nikoli zboží, ale životního stylu,“ které se dá vysledovat až do 2. poloviny 20. let. Stal se též expertem na propagandu poskytli základy public relations. Americká vláda, velké podniky a CIAzpravodajská služba USA s vnějším polem působnosti (tj. špionážním) mající zároveň za úkol provádět po celém světě operace ve prospěch USA. využily své myšlenky k vývoji technik pro řízení mysli amerického lidu. Ale to nebylo cynické cvičení v manipulaci. Lidé s mocí věřili, že jediný způsob, jak demokracii fungovat, je potlačit divoký barbarismus, který se skrýval těsně pod normálním americkým životem.

Anna Freudrakousko-uhersko-britskápsychoanalytička židovského původu, dcera zakladatele psychoanalýzy Sigmunda Freuda. Je zakladatelkou egopsychologie a dětské psychoanalýzy. Jejím nejvýznamnějším konceptem jsou obranné mechanismy Ega a systém paralelních vývojových linií. Věnovala se též problému puberty a adolescence. Byla 99. nejcitovanějším psychologem ve 20. století.... More speaking: Lets say a word about dreams. We all have thoughts which we never knew we had. They are too uncomfortable or too incompatible with our adult self to be remembered. Yet they are often disturbing rumbling under the surface like lava in a volcano. The dream is the royal road to these thoughts. The royal road to the unconscious.

This is the story about how Sigmund Freud’s ideas about the unconscious mind were used by those in power in post war America to try and control the masses. Politicians and planners came to believe That Freudlékař-neurolog, psycholog a zakladatel psychoanalýzy. Vytvořil psychoterapeutickou metodu založenou na volných asociacích pacienta, vytvoření přenosového vztahu s ním a na interpretaci jeho promluv, snů, přenosových emocí a odporu během terapie. was to suggest that hidden deep within all human beings were dangerous and irrational desires and fears. They were convinced that it was the unleashing of these instincts that had led to barbarism of Nazi Germany. To stop it ever happening again, they set out to find ways to control this hidden enemy within the human mind.

At the heart of the story are Sigmund Freud’s daughter Anna and his nephew Edward Bernaysamerický zakladatel moderních public relations. Je mu připisováno autorství změny paradigmatu „prodávání nikoli zboží, ale životního stylu,“ které se dá vysledovat až do 2. poloviny 20. let. Stal se též expertem na propagandu who had invented the profession of public relations. Their ideas were used by the US government, big business and the CIAzpravodajská služba USA s vnějším polem působnosti (tj. špionážním) mající zároveň za úkol provádět po celém světě operace ve prospěch USA. to develop techniques to manage and control the minds of the American people. Those in power believed that the only way to make democracy work and create a stable society was to repress the savage barbarism that lurked just under the surface of normal American life.

The Engineering of Consent

The story begins in the middle of the fierce fighting of the second world war. As the fighting intensified the American army was faced by an extraordinary number of mental breakdowns among its troops. Forty-nine percent of all soldiers evacuated from combat were sent back because they suffered from mental problems. In desperation the army turned to the new ideas of psychoanalysis. They made a film record of the experiment using hidden cameras.

Doctor interviewing solider: „It says here on your record that you had headaches and that you had crying spells.“

Soldier: „Yes sir, I believe that your profession is calling it nostalgia.“

Doctor: „In other words, homesickness.“

Soldier: „Yes sir. It was induced when shortly before the war I received a picture of my sweetheart. (begins to cry) I’m sorry I can’t continue. (leaves)“

It was the first time that anyone had paid such attention to the feelings and anxieties of ordinary people. AT the heart of the experiment were a number of refugee psychoanalysts from central Europe. They worked with American psychiatrists to guide and shape the project.

Professor Martin Bergmannklinický profesor psychologie postdoktorského programu v New Yorské univerzitě, kde vyučoval kurz historie psychoanalýzy. – Psychoanalyst, US Army 1943-45:
When I first came to America I worked in the psychiatric service with soldiers trying to rehabilitate them. And I travelled in the train from the east coast to the west coast I was enormously curious what goes on in all of those little towns that the train is passing. After my years in the army I knew exactly what every one was doing in the little towns. Because I saw so many people who came from there and I understood their aspirations, their disappointments and so forth. So it was as if somebody had invited me to a privileged tour into the inner soul of America.

Doctor interviewing crying soldier again:

Soldier: „(crying) I’m not doing this deliberately please believe me.“

Doctor: „This display of emotion is sometimes very helpful.“

Soldier: „I hope so, sir.“

Doctor: „Sure, it gets it off your chest“

Soldier: „Well sir, to be perfectly honest with you I’m very much in love with my sweetheart. She has been the one person that gave me a sense of importance in that through her cooperation with me we were able to surmount so many obstacles.“

The psychoanalysts used techniques developed by Freudlékař-neurolog, psycholog a zakladatel psychoanalýzy. Vytvořil psychoterapeutickou metodu založenou na volných asociacích pacienta, vytvoření přenosového vztahu s ním a na interpretaci jeho promluv, snů, přenosových emocí a odporu během terapie. to take the men back into their pasts. They became convinced that the breakdowns were not the direct result of the fighting. The stress of combat had merely triggered old childhood memories. These were memories of the men’s own violent feelings and desires which they had repressed because they were too frightening. To the psychoanalyst it was overwhelming proof of Freud’s theory that underneath human beings were driven by primitive irrational forces.

Professor Martin Bergmannklinický profesor psychologie postdoktorského programu v New Yorské univerzitě, kde vyučoval kurz historie psychoanalýzy. – Psychoanalyst, US Army 1943-45:
World War II was a major shattering experience because I discovered the enormous role of the irrational in the life of most people. Now that I can say that I learned that the ratio between the irrational and the rational in America is very much in favor of the irrational. That there’s much greater unhappiness, much more suffering, it’s much more a sad country than one would imagine from the advertisements that you made, a much more problematic country.

Victory in the second world war was celebrated as a triumph of democracy, but in private many policy makers were worried about the implications of the analysis of the soldiers. It seemed to show that underneath every American were irrational violent drives. What had happened in Germany seemed to bear this out. The complicity of so many ordinary Germans in mass killings during the war showed just how easily these forces could break through and overwhelm democracy.

Ellen Hermanhistorik moderních Spojených států se zvláštními zájmy v humanistických vědách, sociálním inženýrství a terapeutické kultuře. – Historian of American Psychology:
Planners and policy makers had been convinced by their experiences during World War II that human beings could act very irrationally because of this sort of teeming and raw and unpredictable emotionality. The kind of chaos that lived at the base of human personality could in fact infect the society social institutions to such a point that the society itself would become sick. That’s what they believe happened in Germany n which the irrational, the anti-democratic went wild. It is a vision of human nature as incredibly destructive and they were terrified Americans would in fact behave that way or were capable of behaving that way and they wanted to avoid a rerun of that.

Professor Martin Bergmannklinický profesor psychologie postdoktorského programu v New Yorské univerzitě, kde vyučoval kurz historie psychoanalýzy. – Psychoanalyst, US Army 1943-45:
So what is needed is a human being that can internalize democratic values so they are not shaken with the storm and psychoanalysis carried in it the promise that it can be done. It opened up new vistas as to how the inner structures of the human being can be changed so that he becomes a more vital free supporter and maintainer of democracy.

Psychoanalysts were convinced they not only understood these dangerous forces but they knew how to control them too. They would use their techniques to create democratic individuals because democracy left to itself failed to do this. The source of this idea is not only Sigmund Freudlékař-neurolog, psycholog a zakladatel psychoanalýzy. Vytvořil psychoterapeutickou metodu založenou na volných asociacích pacienta, vytvoření přenosového vztahu s ním a na interpretaci jeho promluv, snů, přenosových emocí a odporu během terapie. but his youngest daughter Anna. She had fled with her father to London before the outbreak of war, and after he died Anna Freudrakousko-uhersko-britskápsychoanalytička židovského původu, dcera zakladatele psychoanalýzy Sigmunda Freuda. Je zakladatelkou egopsychologie a dětské psychoanalýzy. Jejím nejvýznamnějším konceptem jsou obranné mechanismy Ega a systém paralelních vývojových linií. Věnovala se též problému puberty a adolescence. Byla 99. nejcitovanějším psychologem ve 20. století.... More became the acknowledged leader of the world psychoanalytic movement. She saw her job as to fulfill her father’s dream of making his ideas accepted through the world.

Anton Freudchemický inženýr a člen Royal Pioneer Corps a britské Special Operations Executive. – Anna Freud’s Nephew:
At the center of the Freudlékař-neurolog, psycholog a zakladatel psychoanalýzy. Vytvořil psychoterapeutickou metodu založenou na volných asociacích pacienta, vytvoření přenosového vztahu s ním a na interpretaci jeho promluv, snů, přenosových emocí a odporu během terapie. movement stood only Anna because she managed to work herself into that position. She was recognized as that and not just because she was the daughter, she worked on that. She was rather forbidding and was not to me a warm person, not an Aunt that we could kiss and put your arms around; not at all; and her whole life rotated around the spreading of psychoanalysis.

Freudlékař-neurolog, psycholog a zakladatel psychoanalýzy. Vytvořil psychoterapeutickou metodu založenou na volných asociacích pacienta, vytvoření přenosového vztahu s ním a na interpretaci jeho promluv, snů, přenosových emocí a odporu během terapie. himself had seen the role of psychoanalysis as allowing people to understand their unconscious drives. But Anna Freudrakousko-uhersko-britskápsychoanalytička židovského původu, dcera zakladatele psychoanalýzy Sigmunda Freuda. Je zakladatelkou egopsychologie a dětské psychoanalýzy. Jejím nejvýznamnějším konceptem jsou obranné mechanismy Ega a systém paralelních vývojových linií. Věnovala se též problému puberty a adolescence. Byla 99. nejcitovanějším psychologem ve 20. století.... More believed it was possible to teach individuals how to control these inner forces. She had come to believe this through analyzing children, above all the children of her close friend Dorothy BurlinghamAmerický dětský psychoanalytik a pedagog. Celoživotní přítel a partner dětského psychoanalytika Anna Freudová. Dorothy BurlinghamAmerický dětský psychoanalytik a pedagog. Celoživotní přítel a partner dětského psychoanalytika Anna Freudová was an American millionairess who in the 1920s fled a failed marriage and brought her children to Anna Freudrakousko-uhersko-britskápsychoanalytička židovského původu, dcera zakladatele psychoanalýzy Sigmunda Freuda. Je zakladatelkou egopsychologie a dětské psychoanalýzy. Jejím nejvýznamnějším konceptem jsou obranné mechanismy Ega a systém paralelních vývojových linií. Věnovala se též problému puberty a adolescence. Byla 99. nejcitovanějším psychologem ve 20. století.... More in Vienna. They were suffering terrible anxieties and aggression, but Anna Freudrakousko-uhersko-britskápsychoanalytička židovského původu, dcera zakladatele psychoanalýzy Sigmunda Freuda. Je zakladatelkou egopsychologie a dětské psychoanalýzy. Jejím nejvýznamnějším konceptem jsou obranné mechanismy Ega a systém paralelních vývojových linií. Věnovala se též problému puberty a adolescence. Byla 99. nejcitovanějším psychologem ve 20. století.... More was convinced she could free them from this by changing the world around them.

Michael Burlinghamautor, scénárista – Dorothy Burlingham’s grandson:
She thought that she could come in and enter their environment essentially, because they were children you see and didn’t have independent lives of their own, she could go talk to the parents or the mother, she could go to the schools she could influence their real world, the actual external world to change their lives to help them. And to change them as people? I think that was part of what her idea was, she felt that she could change them.

From her analysis of the Burlingham children Anna Freudrakousko-uhersko-britskápsychoanalytička židovského původu, dcera zakladatele psychoanalýzy Sigmunda Freuda. Je zakladatelkou egopsychologie a dětské psychoanalýzy. Jejím nejvýznamnějším konceptem jsou obranné mechanismy Ega a systém paralelních vývojových linií. Věnovala se též problému puberty a adolescence. Byla 99. nejcitovanějším psychologem ve 20. století.... More developed a theory of how to control the inner drives. It was simple – you taught the children to conform to the rules of society. But this more than just moral guidance. Anna Freudrakousko-uhersko-britskápsychoanalytička židovského původu, dcera zakladatele psychoanalýzy Sigmunda Freuda. Je zakladatelkou egopsychologie a dětské psychoanalýzy. Jejím nejvýznamnějším konceptem jsou obranné mechanismy Ega a systém paralelních vývojových linií. Věnovala se též problému puberty a adolescence. Byla 99. nejcitovanějším psychologem ve 20. století.... More believed if children like the Burlinghams strictly followed the rules of accepted social conduct then as they grew up the conscious part of their mind, what was called the ego, would be greatly strengthened in its struggle to control the unconscious. But if children did not conform their ego would be weak and they would be prey to the dangerous forces of the unconscious.

Michael Burlinghamautor, scénárista – Dorothy Burlingham’s grandson:
In my father’s case they were concerned that he would be a homosexual and so a lot of their efforts went into preventing or trying to stop my father from becoming a homosexual. Whether or not he would have or did you know is unknown to me. Why would they want to stop that? Because they felt it was abnormal, it wasn’t a normal way to develop. They wanted to have him develop along lines that society recognized as normal because if you didn’t then you would be under control of forces that you don’t understand, that you are not even aware of.

The analysis seemed to be a great success and in the thirties the Burlingham children returned to America. Hey settled down to happy married lives in the suburbs. What they didn’t realize was that their experience was about to become a template for a giant social experiment to control the inner mental life of the American population.

In 1946 President Truman34. viceprezidentem a 33. prezidentem Spojených států amerických v letech 1945–1953. Do úřadu nastoupil v dubnu 1945 po smrti Franklina D. Roosevelta. signed The National Mental Health ActZákon učinil duševní zdraví lidí federální prioritou. Byl inspirován alarmem o špatném duševním zdraví některých  veteránů a byl požadován veterány a jejich rodinami.. It had been born directly out of the wartime discoveries by psychoanalysts that millions of Americans who had been drafted suffered hidden anxieties and fears. The aim of the act was to deal with this invisible threat to society.

Newsreel voiceover:
Shocked by the appalling percentage of the emotionally unstable revealed by the World War II draft figures, Congress in 1946 passed The National Mental Health ActZákon učinil duševní zdraví lidí federální prioritou. Byl inspirován alarmem o špatném duševním zdraví některých  veteránů a byl požadován veterány a jejich rodinami. which recognized for the first time that mental illness was a national problem. Keenly aware of the tremendous problems ahead is Dr. Robert H Felix, director of the vast new project. Dr Felix: A primary objective of The National Mental Health program is to increase our fund of scientific knowledge about mental health and about mental illness. We’re not doing this. Why? Because there are all too few skilled mental health workers.

Two of the principal architects of the act were the Menninger brothers Carl and WillAmerický psychiatr a člen rodiny psychiatrů Menninger, kteří založili Menninger Foundation a kliniku Menninger v Topece v Kansasu.. Will had run the wartime psychotherapy experiments and now he and his brother begun to train hundreds of new psychiatrists. The Menningers were convinced that it would be possible to apply Anna Freud’s ideas on a wide scale and to adults as well as children. The psychiatrists job would be to teach ordinary Americans how to control their unconscious drives. Psychoanalysis could be used to make a better society.

Dr. Robert Wallersteinprominentní německý americký psychoanalytik. Vedl výzkumný projekt Psychotherapy of the Menninger Foundation a byl prezidentem Mezinárodní psychoanalytické asociace – Psychoanalyst, Menninger Clinic 1949-1966:
They said psychoanalytic thinking could make for the betterment of society. Because you could change the way the mind functioned; and you could take the ways in which people did hurtful things to themselves and others and alter them by enlarging their understanding. And this was the vision psychoanalysis brought. That you could really change people. And you could change them almost in limitless ways.

In the late forties a vast project began in America to apply the ideas of psychoanalysis to the masses. Psychological guidance centers were set up in hundreds of towns. They were staffed by psychiatrists who believed it was their job to control the hidden forces inside the minds of millions of ordinary Americans. At the same time thousands of counselors were trained to apply psychoanalysis to marriage guidance, and social workers were sent out to visit people’s homes and advise them on the psychological structure of family life. Behind all this was the fundamental idea of Anna Freuds‘ – that if people were encouraged to conform to the accepted patterns of family and social life then their ego would be strengthened. They would be able to control the dangerous forces within them.

Clip from ‚Control Your Emotions‘ an instructional film:
When your emotions control your actions it affects not only your self but the people around you. And if this sort of flair up is repeated often it might lead to a permanently warped personality. You can control the fire of your emotions so that your personality becomes more pleasant.

Dr. Harold BlumKlinický profesor psychiatrie a supervizní a školící analytik, psychoanalytického institutu, zdravotnického centra New York University a výkonného ředitele archivu Sigmunda Freuda. – Psychoanalyst:
So we expected someone who had been through that experience to more insightful, much more understanding, and a much better regulated person. And regulation includes being able to let go as it were, to enjoy a football game or a soccer game. A more understanding, yes rational, but also appropriately emotional person. The regulatory aspects of the human mind would really be in charge, instead of being overwhelmed by our passions and our darker impulses. That one would be master or mistress over ones own passions.

Dr. Neil Smelseremeritus professor of sociology at the University of California, Berkeley – Political Theorist and Psychoanalyst:
They just felt that the road to happiness was in adapting to the external world in which they lived. That people could be uncrippled from their own neurotic conflicts and impulses; that they would not engage in self-destructive behavior, that they would in fact adapt to the reality about them. They never questioned the reality. They never questioned that it might itself be a source of evil or something to which you could not adapt without compromise or without suffering or without exploiting yourself in some way. So there was this fit with the politics of the day.

But it was only the beginning of the rise to power of psychoanalysis in America. Psychoanalysts were about to move into big business and use their techniques not just to create model citizens but model consumers. Last week’s episode showed how Freud’s American nephew Edward Bernaysamerický zakladatel moderních public relations. Je mu připisováno autorství změny paradigmatu „prodávání nikoli zboží, ale životního stylu,“ které se dá vysledovat až do 2. poloviny 20. let. Stal se též expertem na propagandu had been the first to convince American corporations that they could sell products by connecting them with people’s unconscious feelings. But now a group of psychoanalysts were going to take what Bernaysamerický zakladatel moderních public relations. Je mu připisováno autorství změny paradigmatu „prodávání nikoli zboží, ale životního stylu,“ které se dá vysledovat až do 2. poloviny 20. let. Stal se též expertem na propagandu had begun and invent a whole range of techniques to get inside and manage the unconscious mind of the consumer. They were led by Ernest DichterAmerican psychologist and marketing expert known as the "father of motivational research.". DichterAmerican psychologist and marketing expert known as the "father of motivational research." had practiced next door to Freudlékař-neurolog, psycholog a zakladatel psychoanalýzy. Vytvořil psychoterapeutickou metodu založenou na volných asociacích pacienta, vytvoření přenosového vztahu s ním a na interpretaci jeho promluv, snů, přenosových emocí a odporu během terapie. in Vienna, but he had come to America and set up The Institute for Motivational Researchutilizes behavioral science to help organizations, communities, and individuals realize their potential and optimize performance.  in an old mansion north of New York.

Promotional Clip:
This is The Institute for Motivational Researchutilizes behavioral science to help organizations, communities, and individuals realize their potential and optimize performance. , a place devoted to the intriguing business of finding out why people behave as they do. Why they buy as they do. Why they respond to advertising as they do. And this is Dr. Ernest DichterAmerican psychologist and marketing expert known as the "father of motivational research.". „We don’t go out and ask directly why do you buy and why don’t you, what we try to do instead is try to understand the total personality, the self image of the customer; we use all the resources of modern social sciences. It opens up some stimulating psychological techniques for selling any new product.

Like the other psychoanalysts DichterAmerican psychologist and marketing expert known as the "father of motivational research." believed that American citizens were fundamentally irrational beings; they could not be trusted. Their real reasons for buying products were rooted in unconscious desires and feelings. And DichterAmerican psychologist and marketing expert known as the "father of motivational research." wanted to find ways to uncover what he called ‚the secret self‘ of the American consumer.

Fritz Gehagen – Psychologist and employee of Ernest DichterAmerican psychologist and marketing expert known as the "father of motivational research.":
He was trying to get out of people’s mind the unconscious motivations that they had for purchasing. These could be sexual, they could be psychological, they could be sociological, they could be a demand for status a demand for recognition. There were things that people couldn’t verbalize or wouldn’t verbalize because they were too secret to them, they were a part of their nature, and they would be embarrassed if they came out and said things like this.

Hedy DichterAmerican psychologist and marketing expert known as the "father of motivational research." – Ernest Dichter’s wife:
He would interview people but not ask them direct questions but let them talk freely like you do in psychoanalysis, and that was his background.

Fritz Gehagen – Psychologist and employee of Ernest DichterAmerican psychologist and marketing expert known as the "father of motivational research.":
And he said why can’t we have a group therapy session about products? And so DichterAmerican psychologist and marketing expert known as the "father of motivational research." built this room up above his garage and he said we can have psychoanalysis of products, they can actually act out and verbalize their wants and needs. And they could be observed and watched and other people could comment and they could talk about it and everybody could join in. He was the first to do this, this was absolutely the first time this was ever done. And he had a movie projector up there where you could show advertisements and people could react to them and he invented the whole technique for mining the unconscious about the hidden psychological wants that people had about products. This became the focus group.

Dichter’s breakthrough came with a focus group study he did for Betty Crockerfictional character used in advertising campaigns for food and recipes. foods. Like many food manufacturers in the early fifties they had invented a new range of instant convenience foods. But although consumers had told market researchers they would welcome the idea in fact they were refusing to buy them. The worst problem was the Betty Crockerfictional character used in advertising campaigns for food and recipes. cake mix. DichterAmerican psychologist and marketing expert known as the "father of motivational research." did a series of focus groups where housewives free associated about the cake mix. He concluded they felt unconscious guilt about the new image created of ease and convenience.

Bill Schlackmanfather of qualitative research in the UK – Psychologist and employee of Ernest DichterAmerican psychologist and marketing expert known as the "father of motivational research.":
In other words he had understood that the barrier to the consumption of the product was housewives‘ feeling of guilt about using it. They basically on one hand wanted to make it easier for themselves but they felt guilty about it. So what you’ve got to do in those circumstances is remove the barrier, the barrier being guilt. And the way you do that is you give the housewife a greater sense of participation. And how do you do that? By adding an egg. As simple as that.

DichterAmerican psychologist and marketing expert known as the "father of motivational research." told Betty Crockerfictional character used in advertising campaigns for food and recipes. to put an instruction on the packet that the housewife should add an egg. It would be an unconscious symbol he said, of the housewife mixing in her own eggs as a gift to her husband and so would lessen the guilt. Betty Crockerfictional character used in advertising campaigns for food and recipes. did it, and the sales soared.

Bill Schlackmanfather of qualitative research in the UK – Psychologist and employee of Ernest DichterAmerican psychologist and marketing expert known as the "father of motivational research.":
The consumer may have basic needs that the consumer himself or herself doesn’t fully understand. You have to know what those needs are in order to fully exploit the consumer. Is it wrong to give people what they want by taking away their defenses, helping remove their defenses?

Dichters success led to a rush by corporations and advertising agencies to employ psychoanalysts. They became known as the depth boys and they promised to show companies how to make millions by connecting their products with people’s hidden desires. DichterAmerican psychologist and marketing expert known as the "father of motivational research." himself became a millionaire, famous for inventing slogans like ‚A Tiger in Your Tank‘. Even the marketing of the Barbie doll came from a children’s focus group.

But DichterAmerican psychologist and marketing expert known as the "father of motivational research." was convinced this was far more than just selling. Like Anna Freudrakousko-uhersko-britskápsychoanalytička židovského původu, dcera zakladatele psychoanalýzy Sigmunda Freuda. Je zakladatelkou egopsychologie a dětské psychoanalýzy. Jejím nejvýznamnějším konceptem jsou obranné mechanismy Ega a systém paralelních vývojových linií. Věnovala se též problému puberty a adolescence. Byla 99. nejcitovanějším psychologem ve 20. století.... More he believed that the environment could be used to strengthen the human personality, and products had the power both to sate inner desires and give people a feeling of common identity with those around them. It was a strategy for creating a stable society. DichterAmerican psychologist and marketing expert known as the "father of motivational research." called it the strategy of desire.

Ernest DichterAmerican psychologist and marketing expert known as the "father of motivational research." speaking in a promotional clip: To understand a stable citizen you have to know that modern man quite often tries to work off his frustrations by spending on self-gratification. Modern man is eternally ready to fill out his self image by purchasing products which compliment it.

Hedy DichterAmerican psychologist and marketing expert known as the "father of motivational research." – Ernest Dichter’s wife:
If you identify yourself with a product it can have a therapeutic value. It improves your self-image and you become a more secure person and have suddenly this kind of confidence of going out in the world and doing what you want successfully. And it’s believed that would then improve the whole of our society and become the best society on this planet.

By the early fifties the ideas of psychoanalysis had penetrated deep into American life. The psychoanalysts themselves became rich and powerful. Many had consulting rooms overlooking Central Park in New York. Politicians and famous writers like Arthur Milleramerický dramatik a esejista. V letech 1956–1961 byl manželem Marilyn Monroe. and Tennessee Williamsamerický dramatik, představitel psychologického dramatu. became their patients. They were seeking not just help, but to understand the hidden roots of human behavior.

Professor Martin Bergmannklinický profesor psychologie postdoktorského programu v New Yorské univerzitě, kde vyučoval kurz historie psychoanalýzy. – New York Psychoanalyst:
We were sought after. Washington was interested in what we think. The important writers, important politicians were undergoing psychoanalysis. We had waiting lists because there were so many patients that wanted to be analyzed. So it gave us a little bit of a swelled head.

And as the psychoanalysts ideas took hold in America, a new elite began to emerge in politics, in social planning, and in business. What linked this elite was the assumption that the masses were fundamentally irrational. To make a free market democracy like America work one had to use psychological techniques to control mass irrationality.

Ellen Hermanhistorik moderních Spojených států se zvláštními zájmy v humanistických vědách, sociálním inženýrství a terapeutické kultuře. – Historian of American Psychology:
They actually believed that this elite was necessary because individual citizens were not capable, if left alone, of being democratic citizens. The elite was necessary in order to create the conditions that would produce individuals capable of behaving as a good consumer and also behaving as a democratic citizen. They didn’t see their activities as anti-democratic; as undermining the capacity of individual citizens for democracy; quite the opposite. They understood that they were creating the conditions for democracy’s survival in the future.

The rise of psychoanalysis to power in America was an extraordinary triumph for Anna Freudrakousko-uhersko-britskápsychoanalytička židovského původu, dcera zakladatele psychoanalýzy Sigmunda Freuda. Je zakladatelkou egopsychologie a dětské psychoanalýzy. Jejím nejvýznamnějším konceptem jsou obranné mechanismy Ega a systém paralelních vývojových linií. Věnovala se též problému puberty a adolescence. Byla 99. nejcitovanějším psychologem ve 20. století.... More and her tireless promotion of her ideas. She remained in England living with Dorothy BurlinghamAmerický dětský psychoanalytik a pedagog. Celoživotní přítel a partner dětského psychoanalytika Anna Freudová. On the surface it was an idyllic life. She and Dorothy had bought a weekend cottage on the Suffolk coast. But in the summersAmerický ekonom, bývalý viceprezident pro ekonomiku rozvoje a hlavního ekonoma Světové banky (1991-93), vedoucí úředník ministerstva financí USA v celé vládě prezidenta Clintona (nakonec tajemník ministerstva financí, 1999-2001) a bývalý ředitel Národní ekonomické rady prezidenta Obamy (2009-2010).... More Dorothy’s children came from America to visit with the grandchildren. And underneath things were going badly wrong. Both Bob and Mabbie Burlingham whom Anna Freudrakousko-uhersko-britskápsychoanalytička židovského původu, dcera zakladatele psychoanalýzy Sigmunda Freuda. Je zakladatelkou egopsychologie a dětské psychoanalýzy. Jejím nejvýznamnějším konceptem jsou obranné mechanismy Ega a systém paralelních vývojových linií. Věnovala se též problému puberty a adolescence. Byla 99. nejcitovanějším psychologem ve 20. století.... More had analyzed in the early 1930s had suffered personal breakdowns and their marriages were collapsing. Bob was drinking heavily and Mabbie suffered terrible anxieties. The real reasons for the visits to England were yet more analysis with Anna Freudrakousko-uhersko-britskápsychoanalytička židovského původu, dcera zakladatele psychoanalýzy Sigmunda Freuda. Je zakladatelkou egopsychologie a dětské psychoanalýzy. Jejím nejvýznamnějším konceptem jsou obranné mechanismy Ega a systém paralelních vývojových linií. Věnovala se též problému puberty a adolescence. Byla 99. nejcitovanějším psychologem ve 20. století.... More.

Michael Burlinghamautor, scénárista – Bob Burlingham’s son:
The problem was that it didn’t look very good did it? Because here you somebody who’s having nervous breakdowns and is having alcoholic binges and this doesn’t really sit well. From a humane standpoint obviously this is not desirable, you know you want to help these people, but it also had the wider ramifications of everybody in analysis, in analytic circles knew that Bob and Mabbie were guinea pigs they were the living proof that this is a wonderful process. It was very much swept under the rug, it really didn’t get out. I mean these people had such, their power and influence was such that you were very careful. Anna Freudrakousko-uhersko-britskápsychoanalytička židovského původu, dcera zakladatele psychoanalýzy Sigmunda Freuda. Je zakladatelkou egopsychologie a dětské psychoanalýzy. Jejím nejvýznamnějším konceptem jsou obranné mechanismy Ega a systém paralelních vývojových linií. Věnovala se též problému puberty a adolescence. Byla 99. nejcitovanějším psychologem ve 20. století.... More was a very powerful person and you were the grandchildren and she knew a great deal more about what went on in your parents‘ lives and so forth and it’s not something you were going to tangle with, and you were a product of the whole situation. But at the same time we knew that something was really out of whack.

Anton Freudchemický inženýr a člen Royal Pioneer Corps a britské Special Operations Executive. – Anna Freud’s nephew:
As he grew older she became more and more important politically and scientifically but she didn’t know when to stop. She was a bit too righteous that what she did was always the thing and she would never to my knowledge acknowledge that she could make a mistake or be wrong. That was my feeling.

But the power and influence of the Freudlékař-neurolog, psycholog a zakladatel psychoanalýzy. Vytvořil psychoterapeutickou metodu založenou na volných asociacích pacienta, vytvoření přenosového vztahu s ním a na interpretaci jeho promluv, snů, přenosových emocí a odporu během terapie. family in America was about to grow even more. Politicians were about to turn to Anna Freud’s cousin Edward Bernaysamerický zakladatel moderních public relations. Je mu připisováno autorství změny paradigmatu „prodávání nikoli zboží, ale životního stylu,“ které se dá vysledovat až do 2. poloviny 20. let. Stal se též expertem na propagandu for help in a time of crisis. He was going to manipulate the inner feelings and fears of the masses to help Americas politicians fight the cold war.

In 1953 the Soviet Union exploded it’s first hydrogen bomb and the fear of nuclear war and communism gripped the United States. Those in power became concerned with how to reassure the population. Committees were set up and public information films made appealing for calm in the face of new threats like nuclear fallout.

At this point Edward Bernaysamerický zakladatel moderních public relations. Je mu připisováno autorství změny paradigmatu „prodávání nikoli zboží, ale životního stylu,“ které se dá vysledovat až do 2. poloviny 20. let. Stal se též expertem na propagandu was living in New York. In the 1920s he had invented the profession of Public Relations and was now one of the most powerful PR men in America. He worked for most of the major corporations and advised politicians, including President Eisenhoweramerický pětihvězdičkový generál a 34. prezident Spojených států amerických.. Like his uncle Sigmund, Bernaysamerický zakladatel moderních public relations. Je mu připisováno autorství změny paradigmatu „prodávání nikoli zboží, ale životního stylu,“ které se dá vysledovat až do 2. poloviny 20. let. Stal se též expertem na propagandu was convinced that human beings were driven by irrational forces. The only way to deal with the public was to connect with their unconscious desires and fears. Bernaysamerický zakladatel moderních public relations. Je mu připisováno autorství změny paradigmatu „prodávání nikoli zboží, ale životního stylu,“ které se dá vysledovat až do 2. poloviny 20. let. Stal se též expertem na propagandu argued that instead of trying to reduce people’s fears of communism, one should actually encourage and manipulate the fear. And in such a way that it became a weapon in the cold war. Rational argument was fruitless.

Ann BernaysAmerický spisovatel, redaktor a učitel. – Daughter of Edward Bernaysamerický zakladatel moderních public relations. Je mu připisováno autorství změny paradigmatu „prodávání nikoli zboží, ale životního stylu,“ které se dá vysledovat až do 2. poloviny 20. let. Stal se též expertem na propagandu:
What my father understood about groups is that they are malleable. And that you can tap into their deepest desires or their deepest fears and use that to your own purposes. I don’t think he felt that all those publics out there had reliable judgment; that they may very easily might vote for the wrong man or want the wrong thing, so that they had to be guided from above.

One of Bernays‘ main clients was the giant United Fruit Companybyla americká korporace, která obchodovala s tropickým ovocem (hlavně s banány a ananasy) rostoucími na plantážích třetího světa a prodávala jej ve Spojených státech amerických a Evropě. Dnes  Chiquita Brands International.. They owned vast banana plantations in Guatemala and Central America. For decades United Fruitbyla americká korporace, která obchodovala s tropickým ovocem (hlavně s banány a ananasy) rostoucími na plantážích třetího světa a prodávala jej ve Spojených státech amerických a Evropě. Dnes  Chiquita Brands International. had controlled the company through pliable dictators. It was known as a ‚banana republic‘. But in 1950 a young officer, Colonel Arbenzplukovník a politik, který v letech 1944–1951 vykonával funkci ministra obrany a v letech 1951–1954 byl levicovým prezidentem Guatemaly. V této době v Guatemale také žil a jeho vládu podporoval tehdy neznámý Ernesto Guevara, později známý jako Che Guevara. was elected president. He promised to remove United Fruits‘ control over the country and in 1953 he announced the government would take over much of their land. It was a massively popular move but a disaster for United Fruitbyla americká korporace, která obchodovala s tropickým ovocem (hlavně s banány a ananasy) rostoucími na plantážích třetího světa a prodávala jej ve Spojených státech amerických a Evropě. Dnes  Chiquita Brands International. and they turned to Bernaysamerický zakladatel moderních public relations. Je mu připisováno autorství změny paradigmatu „prodávání nikoli zboží, ale životního stylu,“ které se dá vysledovat až do 2. poloviny 20. let. Stal se též expertem na propagandu to help get rid of Arbenzplukovník a politik, který v letech 1944–1951 vykonával funkci ministra obrany a v letech 1951–1954 byl levicovým prezidentem Guatemaly. V této době v Guatemale také žil a jeho vládu podporoval tehdy neznámý Ernesto Guevara, později známý jako Che Guevara..

Larry TyeAmerický autor a novinář literatury faktu známý pro jeho biografie pozoruhodných Američanů včetně Edwarda Bernayse (1999) Satchel Paige (2009) a Bobbyho Kennedyho (2016). – Journalist, Boston Globe:
United Fruitbyla americká korporace, která obchodovala s tropickým ovocem (hlavně s banány a ananasy) rostoucími na plantážích třetího světa a prodávala jej ve Spojených státech amerických a Evropě. Dnes  Chiquita Brands International. brings in Bernaysamerický zakladatel moderních public relations. Je mu připisováno autorství změny paradigmatu „prodávání nikoli zboží, ale životního stylu,“ které se dá vysledovat až do 2. poloviny 20. let. Stal se též expertem na propagandu and he basically understood that what United Fruit Companybyla americká korporace, která obchodovala s tropickým ovocem (hlavně s banány a ananasy) rostoucími na plantážích třetího světa a prodávala jej ve Spojených státech amerických a Evropě. Dnes  Chiquita Brands International. had to do was change this from being a popularly elected government that was doing some things that were good for the people there into this being, very close to the American shore, a threat to American democracy. This being at time in the cold war when Americans responded to issues of ‚the red scare‘ and what communism might do, he was trying to transform this and brilliantly did transform it into an issue of a communist threat very close to our shores; taking United Fruitbyla americká korporace, která obchodovala s tropickým ovocem (hlavně s banány a ananasy) rostoucími na plantážích třetího světa a prodávala jej ve Spojených státech amerických a Evropě. Dnes  Chiquita Brands International. again, as a commercial client out of the picture and making it look like a question of American democracy, American values being threatened.

In reality Arbenzplukovník a politik, který v letech 1944–1951 vykonával funkci ministra obrany a v letech 1951–1954 byl levicovým prezidentem Guatemaly. V této době v Guatemale také žil a jeho vládu podporoval tehdy neznámý Ernesto Guevara, později známý jako Che Guevara. was a democratic socialist with no links to Moscow, but Bernaysamerický zakladatel moderních public relations. Je mu připisováno autorství změny paradigmatu „prodávání nikoli zboží, ale životního stylu,“ které se dá vysledovat až do 2. poloviny 20. let. Stal se též expertem na propagandu set out to turn him into a communist threat to America. He organized a trip to Guatemala for influential American journalists. Few of them knew anything about the country or its politics. Bernaysamerický zakladatel moderních public relations. Je mu připisováno autorství změny paradigmatu „prodávání nikoli zboží, ale životního stylu,“ které se dá vysledovat až do 2. poloviny 20. let. Stal se též expertem na propagandu arranged for them to be entertained and to meet selected Guatemalan politicians who told them Arbenzplukovník a politik, který v letech 1944–1951 vykonával funkci ministra obrany a v letech 1951–1954 byl levicovým prezidentem Guatemaly. V této době v Guatemale také žil a jeho vládu podporoval tehdy neznámý Ernesto Guevara, později známý jako Che Guevara. was a communist controlled by Moscow.

During the trip there was also a violent anti-American demonstration in the capital. Many of those who worked for United Fruitbyla americká korporace, která obchodovala s tropickým ovocem (hlavně s banány a ananasy) rostoucími na plantážích třetího světa a prodávala jej ve Spojených státech amerických a Evropě. Dnes  Chiquita Brands International. were convinced it had been organized by Bernaysamerický zakladatel moderních public relations. Je mu připisováno autorství změny paradigmatu „prodávání nikoli zboží, ale životního stylu,“ které se dá vysledovat až do 2. poloviny 20. let. Stal se též expertem na propagandu himself. He also created a fake independent news agency in America called the Middle America Information Bureau. It bombarded the American media with press releases saying that Moscow was planning to use Guatemala as a beachhead to attack America. All of this had the desired effect.

Newsreel clip:
In Guatemala the Jacob Arbenzplukovník a politik, který v letech 1944–1951 vykonával funkci ministra obrany a v letech 1951–1954 byl levicovým prezidentem Guatemaly. V této době v Guatemale také žil a jeho vládu podporoval tehdy neznámý Ernesto Guevara, později známý jako Che Guevara. regime became increasingly communistic after his inauguration in 1951. Communists in the congress and high governmental positions controlled major committees, labor and farm groups, and propaganda facilities. They agitated and led in demonstrations against neighboring countries and the United States.

Larry TyeAmerický autor a novinář literatury faktu známý pro jeho biografie pozoruhodných Američanů včetně Edwarda Bernayse (1999) Satchel Paige (2009) a Bobbyho Kennedyho (2016). – Journalist, Boston Globe:
What was profoundly new in terms of what Bernaysamerický zakladatel moderních public relations. Je mu připisováno autorství změny paradigmatu „prodávání nikoli zboží, ale životního stylu,“ které se dá vysledovat až do 2. poloviny 20. let. Stal se též expertem na propagandu did was he took this menace to our backyard in Guatemala. For the first time we saw reds a couple hundred miles from New Orleans, who Eddie Bernaysamerický zakladatel moderních public relations. Je mu připisováno autorství změny paradigmatu „prodávání nikoli zboží, ale životního stylu,“ které se dá vysledovat až do 2. poloviny 20. let. Stal se též expertem na propagandu had us believing were a true threat to us. There was going to be a Soviet outpost in our backyard.

But what Bernaysamerický zakladatel moderních public relations. Je mu připisováno autorství změny paradigmatu „prodávání nikoli zboží, ale životního stylu,“ které se dá vysledovat až do 2. poloviny 20. let. Stal se též expertem na propagandu was doing was not just trying to blacken the Arbenzplukovník a politik, který v letech 1944–1951 vykonával funkci ministra obrany a v letech 1951–1954 byl levicovým prezidentem Guatemaly. V této době v Guatemale také žil a jeho vládu podporoval tehdy neznámý Ernesto Guevara, později známý jako Che Guevara. regime, he was part of a secret plot. President Eisenhoweramerický pětihvězdičkový generál a 34. prezident Spojených států amerických. had agreed that America should topple the Arbenzplukovník a politik, který v letech 1944–1951 vykonával funkci ministra obrany a v letech 1951–1954 byl levicovým prezidentem Guatemaly. V této době v Guatemale také žil a jeho vládu podporoval tehdy neznámý Ernesto Guevara, později známý jako Che Guevara. government, but secretly. The CIAzpravodajská služba USA s vnějším polem působnosti (tj. špionážním) mající zároveň za úkol provádět po celém světě operace ve prospěch USA. were instructed to organize a coup. Working with the United Fruit Companybyla americká korporace, která obchodovala s tropickým ovocem (hlavně s banány a ananasy) rostoucími na plantážích třetího světa a prodávala jej ve Spojených státech amerických a Evropě. Dnes  Chiquita Brands International. the CIAzpravodajská služba USA s vnějším polem působnosti (tj. špionážním) mající zároveň za úkol provádět po celém světě operace ve prospěch USA. trained and armed a rebel army and found a new leader for the country called Colonel ArmasGuatemalský vojenský důstojník a politik. Po převzetí moci při státním převratu sloužil jako prezident Guatemaly od roku 1954 do roku 1957.. The CIAzpravodajská služba USA s vnějším polem působnosti (tj. špionážním) mající zároveň za úkol provádět po celém světě operace ve prospěch USA. agent in charge was Howard HuntAmerický zpravodajský důstojník a autor 73 knih. Od roku 1949 do roku 1970 byl vyšetřovacím důstojníkem Centrální zpravodajské služby (CIA)., later one of the Watergateskandál, který vypukl ve Spojených státech poté, co do sídla Demokratické strany v komplexu Watergate ve Washingtonu, D.C. v roce 1972 násilně vnikli pracovníci aparátu republikánského prezidenta Richarda Nixona. Ti byli pověřeni úkolem umístit do budovy odposlech. O události začali psát reportéři deníku The Washington Post Carl Bernstein a Bob Woodward. Případ vedl až k rezignaci prezidenta USA a je dodnes považován za největší kauzu v dějinách žurnalistiky.... More burglars.

Howard HuntAmerický zpravodajský důstojník a autor 73 knih. Od roku 1949 do roku 1970 byl vyšetřovacím důstojníkem Centrální zpravodajské služby (CIA). – Head of CIAzpravodajská služba USA s vnějším polem působnosti (tj. špionážním) mající zároveň za úkol provádět po celém světě operace ve prospěch USA. Operation, Guatemala, 1954:
What we wanted to do is have a terror campaign; to terrify Arbenzplukovník a politik, který v letech 1944–1951 vykonával funkci ministra obrany a v letech 1951–1954 byl levicovým prezidentem Guatemaly. V této době v Guatemale také žil a jeho vládu podporoval tehdy neznámý Ernesto Guevara, později známý jako Che Guevara. particularly, terrify his troops, much as the German Stuka bombers terrified the population of Holland, Belgium and Poland at the onset of World War II and just rendered everybody paralyzed.

As planes flown by CIAzpravodajská služba USA s vnějším polem působnosti (tj. špionážním) mající zároveň za úkol provádět po celém světě operace ve prospěch USA. pilots dropped bombs on Guatemala City, Edward Bernaysamerický zakladatel moderních public relations. Je mu připisováno autorství změny paradigmatu „prodávání nikoli zboží, ale životního stylu,“ které se dá vysledovat až do 2. poloviny 20. let. Stal se též expertem na propagandu carried on his propaganda campaign in the American press. He was preparing the American population to see this as the liberation of Guatemala by freedom fighters for democracy.

Larry TyeAmerický autor a novinář literatury faktu známý pro jeho biografie pozoruhodných Američanů včetně Edwarda Bernayse (1999) Satchel Paige (2009) a Bobbyho Kennedyho (2016). – Journalist, Boston Globe:
He totally understood that the coup would happen when conditions in the public and the press allowed for a coup to happen and he created those conditions. He was totally savvy in terms of just what he was helping create there in terms of the overthrow. But ultimately he was reshaping reality, and reshaping public opinion in a way that’s undemocratic and manipulative.

On June 27th 1954 Colonel Arbenzplukovník a politik, který v letech 1944–1951 vykonával funkci ministra obrany a v letech 1951–1954 byl levicovým prezidentem Guatemaly. V této době v Guatemale také žil a jeho vládu podporoval tehdy neznámý Ernesto Guevara, později známý jako Che Guevara. fled the country and ArmasGuatemalský vojenský důstojník a politik. Po převzetí moci při státním převratu sloužil jako prezident Guatemaly od roku 1954 do roku 1957. arrived as the new leader. Within months Vice President Nixon37. prezident Spojených států amerických (1969–1974) a také 36. viceprezident Spojených států amerických (1953–1961), zde působil v době, kdy byl v úřadu prezident Dwight D. Eisenhower. Nixon je jediným člověkem, který byl dvakrát zvolen americkým viceprezidentem i prezidentem.... More visited Guatemala. In an event staged by United Fruit’s PR department he was shown piles of Marxist literature that had been found it was said in the presidential palace.

News clip showing Nixon37. prezident Spojených států amerických (1969–1974) a také 36. viceprezident Spojených států amerických (1953–1961), zde působil v době, kdy byl v úřadu prezident Dwight D. Eisenhower. Nixon je jediným člověkem, který byl dvakrát zvolen americkým viceprezidentem i prezidentem.... More speaking in front of piles with ArmasGuatemalský vojenský důstojník a politik. Po převzetí moci při státním převratu sloužil jako prezident Guatemaly od roku 1954 do roku 1957.: This is the first time in the history of the world that the communist government has been overthrown by the people. And for that we congratulate you and the people of Guatemala for the support they have given. And we are sure that under your leadership supported by the people whom I have met by the hundreds on my visit to Guatemala that Guatemala is going to enter a new era in which there will be prosperity for the people together with liberty for the people. Thank you very much for allowing us to see this exhibit of communism in Guatemala.

Bernaysamerický zakladatel moderních public relations. Je mu připisováno autorství změny paradigmatu „prodávání nikoli zboží, ale životního stylu,“ které se dá vysledovat až do 2. poloviny 20. let. Stal se též expertem na propagandu had manipulated the American people but he had done so because he, like many others at the time believed that the interests of business and the interests of America were indivisible. Especially when faced with the threat of communism. But Bernaysamerický zakladatel moderních public relations. Je mu připisováno autorství změny paradigmatu „prodávání nikoli zboží, ale životního stylu,“ které se dá vysledovat až do 2. poloviny 20. let. Stal se též expertem na propagandu was convinced that to explain this rationally to the American people was impossible. Because they were not rational. Instead one had to touch on their inner fears and manipulate them in the interest of a higher truth. He called it the engineering of consent.

Ann BernaysAmerický spisovatel, redaktor a učitel. – Daughter of Edward Bernaysamerický zakladatel moderních public relations. Je mu připisováno autorství změny paradigmatu „prodávání nikoli zboží, ale životního stylu,“ které se dá vysledovat až do 2. poloviny 20. let. Stal se též expertem na propagandu:
He was doing it for the American way of life to which he was devoted, sincerely devoted. And yet he felt the people were really pretty stupid. And that’s the paradox. If you don’t leave it up to the people themselves but force them to choose what you want them to choose, however subtly, then it’s not democracy anymore. It’s something else, it’s being told what to do, it’s that old authoritarian thing.

But the idea that it was necessary to manipulate the feelings of the American population in the interest of fighting the cold war now began to take root in Washington. Above all in the CIAzpravodajská služba USA s vnějším polem působnosti (tj. špionážním) mající zároveň za úkol provádět po celém světě operace ve prospěch USA. who were going to take it much further. They were concerned that the Soviets were experimenting with psychological methods to actually alter the memories and feelings of people. The aim, being to produce more controllable citizens. It was known as brainwashing. Psychologists in the CIAzpravodajská služba USA s vnějším polem působnosti (tj. špionážním) mající zároveň za úkol provádět po celém světě operace ve prospěch USA. were convinced that this really might be possible and that they should try do it themselves.

Dr. John GittingerPersonality Assessment System je popisný model osobnosti formulovaný John W. Gittinger. Systém byl používán vědci při studiu osobnosti a kliniků v klinické praxi. Hlavním rysem PAS je to, že profil osobnosti lze systematicky interpretovat ze souboru testů Wechsler Scale subtest.CIAzpravodajská služba USA s vnějším polem působnosti (tj. špionážním) mající zároveň za úkol provádět po celém světě operace ve prospěch USA. Chief Psychologist 1950-74:
The image of the human being that was being built up at that time was that there was a great deal of vulnerability in every human being and that vulnerability could be manipulated to program somebody to be something they I wanted them to be and they didn’t want to be. That you could manipulate people in such a way that they could be automatons if you will for whatever your purposes were, this is the image that people thought was possible.

In the late fifties the CIAzpravodajská služba USA s vnějším polem působnosti (tj. špionážním) mající zároveň za úkol provádět po celém světě operace ve prospěch USA. poured millions of dollars into the psychology departments at universities across America. They were secretly funding experiments in how to alter and control the inner drives of human beings. The most notorious of these experiments was run by the head of the American Psychiatric Associationhlavní profesní organizace psychiatrů a praktikantů psychiatrů ve Spojených státech, Dr. Ewen Cameronpsychiatr, který byl kritizován za podávání elektrošokové terapie a experimentálních léků pacientům bez jejich informovaného souhlasu. Některé z těchto prací se uskutečnily v rámci programu MK Ultra pro řízení mysli.. Like many psychiatrists at that time Cameron was convinced that inside human beings were dangerous forces which threatened society. But he believed it was possible to not just control these forces but actually remove them.

Dr. Heinz Lehmannpsychiatr známý pro jeho použití chlorpromazine pro léčbu schizofrenie v padesátých létech. – Psychiatrist and colleague of Dr Cameronpsychiatr, který byl kritizován za podávání elektrošokové terapie a experimentálních léků pacientům bez jejich informovaného souhlasu. Některé z těchto prací se uskutečnily v rámci programu MK Ultra pro řízení mysli.:
He thought that psychiatry should not just concentrate on sick people and the mentally ill, but should actually go into government, that politicians should listen to psychiatrists; psychiatrists should be in every parliament and should direct and monitor political activities because they knew in a rational and scientific way what was good for people.

Cameron had set up a clinic in a hospital in Montreal called the Allen Memorial. It has now long since closed down. Cameron took patients who suffered a wide range of mental problems. His theory was that these resulted from forgotten or repressed memories. But he was impatient with the theory of using psychotherapy to uncover them. Instead, he would simply wipe them. Cameron used drugs including LSD and the technique of ECTECT, veřejností někdy nazývána elektrošoky) je způsob léčby psychických poruch, při kterém krátký puls elektrického prouduprojde mozkem pacienta. Tento impuls vyvolá umělý (artificiální) epileptický záchvat., electro-convulsive therapyECT, veřejností někdy nazývána elektrošoky) je způsob léčby psychických poruch, při kterém krátký puls elektrického prouduprojde mozkem pacienta. Tento impuls vyvolá umělý (artificiální) epileptický záchvat.. It was conventionally used at that time to relieve depression. But Cameron was going to use it in a new way – to produce new people.

Laughlin Taylor – Assistant to Dr Cameronpsychiatr, který byl kritizován za podávání elektrošokové terapie a experimentálních léků pacientům bez jejich informovaného souhlasu. Některé z těchto prací se uskutečnily v rámci programu MK Ultra pro řízení mysli. 1958-60:
He was really using it to try and change the fundamental function of the individual. To alter their past memories, their past ways of behaving, and as I think he said at one point, to just sort of erase everything from their past so that you then had a slate in which you could record new ways of behavior. And so he used massive doses of shock, people receiving several shocks a day and over a course over time hundreds of ECTECT, veřejností někdy nazývána elektrošoky) je způsob léčby psychických poruch, při kterém krátký puls elektrického prouduprojde mozkem pacienta. Tento impuls vyvolá umělý (artificiální) epileptický záchvat. treatments so that they were just reduced to sort of a primitive vegetable state.

Linda MacDonald – Patient of Dr. Ewen Cameronpsychiatr, který byl kritizován za podávání elektrošokové terapie a experimentálních léků pacientům bez jejich informovaného souhlasu. Některé z těchto prací se uskutečnily v rámci programu MK Ultra pro řízení mysli.:
I don’t remember what happened to me. I was introduced to Dr. Cameron and I don’t remember Dr. Cameron at all. I don’t remember any of that. They shipped me up to what they call ‚the sleep room‘ and they gave me all of these electro-convulsive shock treatments and mega doses of drugs and LSD and all of that and I have no memory of any of that. Nothing of that time at the Allen Memorial or any of my life previous to that. All gone. Wiped.

Laughlin Taylor – Assistant to Dr Cameronpsychiatr, který byl kritizován za podávání elektrošokové terapie a experimentálních léků pacientům bez jejich informovaného souhlasu. Některé z těchto prací se uskutečnily v rámci programu MK Ultra pro řízení mysli. 1958-60:
And then after having depatterned somebody or brought them down to where basically nothing but the essential functions of the body were going on in terms of breathing and things of this nature, then he would begin to feed material into these individuals; positive material such that the brain would be programmed in a positive way so that the individual would be completely altered.

Linda MacDonald – Patient of Dr. Ewen Cameronpsychiatr, který byl kritizován za podávání elektrošokové terapie a experimentálních léků pacientům bez jejich informovaného souhlasu. Některé z těchto prací se uskutečnily v rámci programu MK Ultra pro řízení mysli.:
Then he put these tapes under our pillows called psychic driving. He would then put back into this empty brain a program of whatever sort he decided upon. And the people like myself would wake up another person I guess.

In fact Cameron’s experiments were a complete disaster. All he managed to produce were dozens of people with memory loss and the ability to repeat the phrase ‚I am at ease with myself‘. And it was not an isolated case, almost all the experiments the CIAzpravodajská služba USA s vnějším polem působnosti (tj. špionážním) mající zároveň za úkol provádět po celém světě operace ve prospěch USA. funded were equally unsuccessful. Despite their ambitions American psychologists were beginning to find out how difficult it was to understand and control the inner workings of the human mind.

Dr. John GittingerPersonality Assessment System je popisný model osobnosti formulovaný John W. Gittinger. Systém byl používán vědci při studiu osobnosti a kliniků v klinické praxi. Hlavním rysem PAS je to, že profil osobnosti lze systematicky interpretovat ze souboru testů Wechsler Scale subtest.CIAzpravodajská služba USA s vnějším polem působnosti (tj. špionážním) mající zároveň za úkol provádět po celém světě operace ve prospěch USA. Chief Psychologist 1950-74:
We had really been chasing a phantom, if you will, an illusion – that the human mind was more capable of manipulation from the outside, by outside factors than it is. We found out that the human being is an extremely complex thing. There were no simple solutions. But you’ve just got to bear in mind that these were strange times.

The psychoanalysts had come to power in America because of their theory that they knew how to control the dangerous forces inside human beings. But now the psychoanalysts were about to face a high profile failure that would lead people to begin questioning the very basis of their ideas. It began in Hollywood.

The film industry had become fascinated with psychoanalysis, and Anna Freudrakousko-uhersko-britskápsychoanalytička židovského původu, dcera zakladatele psychoanalýzy Sigmunda Freuda. Je zakladatelkou egopsychologie a dětské psychoanalýzy. Jejím nejvýznamnějším konceptem jsou obranné mechanismy Ega a systém paralelních vývojových linií. Věnovala se též problému puberty a adolescence. Byla 99. nejcitovanějším psychologem ve 20. století.... More was a powerful influence on dozens of analysts in Los Angeles. They treated film stars, directors, and studio bosses. Anna Freud’s closest friend was the most sought after of all, Ralph Greensonprominentní americký psychiatr a psychoanalytik známý tím, že byl psychiatrem Marilyn Monroe. Dobrý přítel s Annou Freudovou, Fawn Brodie a Margaret Meadovou.. And in 1960 the most famous star in the world turned to Greensonprominentní americký psychiatr a psychoanalytik známý tím, že byl psychiatrem Marilyn Monroe. Dobrý přítel s Annou Freudovou, Fawn Brodie a Margaret Meadovou. for help. Marilyn Monroeamerická filmová herečka, modelka, zpěvačka a producentka. was suffering from despair and had become addicted to alcohol and drugs.

Celeste HolmAmerická divadelní, filmová a televizní herečka – Actress and former patient of Dr. Ralph Greensonprominentní americký psychiatr a psychoanalytik známý tím, že byl psychiatrem Marilyn Monroe. Dobrý přítel s Annou Freudovou, Fawn Brodie a Margaret Meadovou.:
When I walked in to dinner here was Marilyn Monroeamerická filmová herečka, modelka, zpěvačka a producentka.. And I made a picture with her called All About Eve. This was dinner at Ralph Greenson’s? Yes. And the only thing was that Ralph was trying to show her the way a family life ought really to be. So we were walking the dog after and I said ‚what the hell are you doing here?‘ I said, ‚You never invited me to dinner!‘ And he said, ‚you weren’t that sick.‘ And I said ‚oh.‘ He said ‚this child has no, NO frame of reference.‘ In other words she has no idea what the goal is.

What Greensonprominentní americký psychiatr a psychoanalytik známý tím, že byl psychiatrem Marilyn Monroe. Dobrý přítel s Annou Freudovou, Fawn Brodie a Margaret Meadovou. did is follow Anna Freud’s theory If Marilyn Monroeamerická filmová herečka, modelka, zpěvačka a producentka. could be thought to conform to what society considered a normal pattern of life. That would help her ego control her inner destructive urges. But Greensonprominentní americký psychiatr a psychoanalytik známý tím, že byl psychiatrem Marilyn Monroe. Dobrý přítel s Annou Freudovou, Fawn Brodie a Margaret Meadovou. pushed it to an extreme. He persuaded Monroe to move into a house nearby that was decorated like his own. He then took her into his own family life, and he, his wife and his daughter played at being Monroe’s own family. Greensonprominentní americký psychiatr a psychoanalytik známý tím, že byl psychiatrem Marilyn Monroe. Dobrý přítel s Annou Freudovou, Fawn Brodie a Margaret Meadovou. himself would become the model of conformity.

Dr. Leo RangellAmerický psychoanalytik a klinický profesor psychiatrie na Kalifornské univerzitě. – Los Angeles psychoanalyst:
And so this someone she regarded as important and she idealized , if he turned out to be a very gratifying father figure her ego would benefit from it, that was the theory. His wife and children, everyone was involved in it. They were strengthening the person, they were strengthening the mind, they were strengthening the agent that controls inner life; against adversity, against insufficiency, against too much frustration, so that Marilyn Monroeamerická filmová herečka, modelka, zpěvačka a producentka. would no longer be a helpless person looking for love, she’d have enough love.

But despite all his efforts, Greensonprominentní americký psychiatr a psychoanalytik známý tím, že byl psychiatrem Marilyn Monroe. Dobrý přítel s Annou Freudovou, Fawn Brodie a Margaret Meadovou. was unable to help Marilyn Monroeamerická filmová herečka, modelka, zpěvačka a producentka.. On August 5th 1962 she committed suicide in her house. The suicide shocked many in the analytic community, including Anna Freudrakousko-uhersko-britskápsychoanalytička židovského původu, dcera zakladatele psychoanalýzy Sigmunda Freuda. Je zakladatelkou egopsychologie a dětské psychoanalýzy. Jejím nejvýznamnějším konceptem jsou obranné mechanismy Ega a systém paralelních vývojových linií. Věnovala se též problému puberty a adolescence. Byla 99. nejcitovanějším psychologem ve 20. století.... More. And high profile figures in American life who had previously been enthusiasts for psychoanalysis now began to question why psychoanalysis had become so powerful in America. Was it really because it benefitted individuals or had it in fact become a form of constraint in the interests of social order. The critics included Monroe’s ex-husband, Arthur Milleramerický dramatik a esejista. V letech 1956–1961 byl manželem Marilyn Monroe..

Arthur Milleramerický dramatik a esejista. V letech 1956–1961 byl manželem Marilyn Monroe. – Interview 1963:
My argument with so much psychoanalysis these days is the preconception that suffering is a mistake, or a sign of weakness, or a sign even of illness. When in fact, possibly the greatest truths we know will have come out of people’s suffering. That the problem is not to undo suffering or to wipe it off the face of the earth but to make it inform our lives, instead of trying to cure ourselves of it constantly and avoid it. And avoid anything but that lobotomized sense of what they call happiness. There’s too much of an attempt it seems to me at controlling man rather than freeing him; of defining him rather than letting him go. And it’s part of the whole ideology of this age which is power mad.

At the same time an onslaught was launched on the way psychoanalysis was being used by business to control people. The first blow came with a bestseller, The Hidden Persuaders written by Vance PackardAmerický novinář a sociální kritik. Byl autorem několika knih, včetně knihy The Hidden Persuaders. Byl kritikem konzumerismu.. It accused psychoanalysts of reducing the American people to emotional puppets whose only function is to keep mass production lines running. They did this by manipulating people’s unconscious desires, to create longings for ever new brands and models. They had turned the population into unwilling participants in the system of planned obsolescence. The second blow came from an influential philosopher and social critic, Herbert Marcuseněmecko-americký filosof a sociolog židovského původu, člen Frankfurtské školy.. He had been trained in psychoanalysis.

Herbert Marcuseněmecko-americký filosof a sociolog židovského původu, člen Frankfurtské školy. – Interviewed 1967:
This is a childish application of psychoanalysis which does not take at all into consideration they very real political systematic waste of resources of technology and of the productive process. For example this planned obsolescence; for example the production of innumerable brands and gadgets who are in the last analysis always the same; the production of innumerable different models of automobiles; and this prosperity at the same time, consciously or unconsciously leads to a kind of schizophrenic existence. I believe that in this society an incredible quantity of aggressiveness and destructiveness is accumulated precisely because of the empty prosperity which then simply erupts.

Marcuse’s argument is not simply that psychoanalysis had been used for corrupt purposes, it was more fundamental. Marcuseněmecko-americký filosof a sociolog židovského původu, člen Frankfurtské školy. said that the very idea that you needed to control people was wrong. Human beings did have inner emotional drives, but they were not inherently violent or evil. It was society that made these drives dangerous by repressing and distorting them. Anna Freudrakousko-uhersko-britskápsychoanalytička židovského původu, dcera zakladatele psychoanalýzy Sigmunda Freuda. Je zakladatelkou egopsychologie a dětské psychoanalýzy. Jejím nejvýznamnějším konceptem jsou obranné mechanismy Ega a systém paralelních vývojových linií. Věnovala se též problému puberty a adolescence. Byla 99. nejcitovanějším psychologem ve 20. století.... More and her followers had increased that repression by trying to make people conform to society. In so doing, they made people more dangerous not less.

Dr, Neil Smelseremeritus professor of sociology at the University of California, Berkeley – Political theorist and psychoanalyst:
Marcuseněmecko-americký filosof a sociolog židovského původu, člen Frankfurtské školy. challenged that social world and he said that’s a world that should not be adapted to. And in fact what the individual was adapting to was corrupt and evil and corrupting. In other words he switched the source of evil from inward conflict to the society itself. That the sickness in society lay at the society level not at the sickness of human beings in it. And if people did not challenge that then they were in fact submitting to evil.

Martin Luther Kingamerický baptistický kazatel, spolu s Malcolmem X jeden z nejvýznamnějších vůdců afroamerického hnutí za občanská práva. 1967:
Modern psychology has a word that is used probably more than any other word in psychology, it is the word maladjusted. It is the ringing cry of modern child psychology, maladjusted. Now of course we all want to live the well adjusted life in order to avoid neurotic and schizophrenic personalities. But as I move toward my conclusion I would like to say to you today in a very honest manner that there are some things in our society and some things in our world to which I am proud to be maladjusted and I call upon all men of good will to be maladjusted to these things until the good society is realized. I must honestly say to you that I never intend to adjust myself to racial segregation and discrimination. I never intend to adjust myself to religious bigotry. I never intend to adjust myself to economic conditions to take necessities from the many to give luxuries to the few. Never leave millions of God’s children smothering in an airtight cage of poverty in the midst of an affluent society.

The political influence of the Freudian psychoanalysts was over. Instead they were now accused of having helped to create a repressive form of social control. Anna Freudrakousko-uhersko-britskápsychoanalytička židovského původu, dcera zakladatele psychoanalýzy Sigmunda Freuda. Je zakladatelkou egopsychologie a dětské psychoanalýzy. Jejím nejvýznamnějším konceptem jsou obranné mechanismy Ega a systém paralelních vývojových linií. Věnovala se též problému puberty a adolescence. Byla 99. nejcitovanějším psychologem ve 20. století.... More and Dorothy BurlinghamAmerický dětský psychoanalytik a pedagog. Celoživotní přítel a partner dětského psychoanalytika Anna Freudová lived on in Sigmund Freud’s old house in London. In 1970 Dorothy’s son Bob died of alcoholism, and in 1973 his sister Mabbie returned for yet more analysis with Anna Freudrakousko-uhersko-britskápsychoanalytička židovského původu, dcera zakladatele psychoanalýzy Sigmunda Freuda. Je zakladatelkou egopsychologie a dětské psychoanalýzy. Jejím nejvýznamnějším konceptem jsou obranné mechanismy Ega a systém paralelních vývojových linií. Věnovala se též problému puberty a adolescence. Byla 99. nejcitovanějším psychologem ve 20. století.... More.

Michael Burlinghamautor, scénárista – Bob Burlingham’s son:
She went back for more analysis; she was living at 20 Maresfield Gardens in the Freudlékař-neurolog, psycholog a zakladatel psychoanalýzy. Vytvořil psychoterapeutickou metodu založenou na volných asociacích pacienta, vytvoření přenosového vztahu s ním a na interpretaci jeho promluv, snů, přenosových emocí a odporu během terapie. house, as I guess she did when she wasn’t with her husband, and she committed suicide. She took an overdose of sleeping pills. In Freud’s own house, right. So obviously there are a lot of implications one can draw from that and I just happened to think she reached the end of the rope there. Although it would seem to be a very pointed act. Obviously suicide is a very politicized act and to do it in Sigmund Freud’s own house is certainly different from doing it Riverdale back in New York.

Next episode will tell the story of the rise to power of the enemies of the Freudlékař-neurolog, psycholog a zakladatel psychoanalýzy. Vytvořil psychoterapeutickou metodu založenou na volných asociacích pacienta, vytvoření přenosového vztahu s ním a na interpretaci jeho promluv, snů, přenosových emocí a odporu během terapie. family. They believed the way to build a better society was to let the self free. But what they didn’t realize was that this idea of liberation would provide business and politics yet another way to control the self, by feeding its infinite desires.